The first chapter of this module attempts a brief review of the main teaching approaches for teaching a second/foreign language. It aims at mapping the position of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation in each approach, and at discovering their most effective teaching method proposed by each approach. Particular emphasis is given to the Communicative Approach and the methods which were developed after 1980 in the context of the Communicative Approach. The remaining three chapters present basic theoretical questions about the teaching of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation in a second/foreign language, respectively. Each chapter includes five teaching suggestions with various exercises designed to enable trainees to link the theoretical framework with practical application.
In this module, we discuss the main issues related to the teaching of a foreign language, namely Greek, to young learners. These are examined in the general context of the relevant theory as well as of the debates and concerns that are directly related to the teaching of a second/foreign language to young learners.
Given that teachers are already familiar with the approaches in the methodology of teaching a foreign language, (an issue which is also examined in other modules of the program, such as the module: Teaching Grammar, Vocabulary and Pronunciation), this module exclusively focuses on teaching young children. Specifically, we discuss the teaching strategies as well as other important theoretical issues concerning the teaching of a foreign language to children.
Bilingualism is a widespread phenomenon, which affects populations all over the world. Therefore, it is important for teachers to know not only the main characteristics of the bilingual speaker’s language and cognitive abilities, but also the role of school in the context of intercultural education.
The first part of the module deals with issues relating to individual bilingualism. In particular, it presents the criteria according to which the different types of bilingual speakers are categorized, the most common environments of bilingualism and their characteristics, with reference to the Critical Period Hypothesis. Moreover, it discusses the positive effects of bilingualism on the development and use of the executive functions of inhibition and selective attention. Finally, it examines the role that school plays in the development of bilingualism. Particular emphasis is placed on the educational environment of the bilingual child and how this influences the development his writing skills.
The second part of the module focuses on intercultural education. Firstly, it clarifies the key terms of intercultural education and its impact on modern forms of education. Secondly, it considers the phenomenon of bilingualism in multicultural classrooms and its exploitation in the teaching practice. Finally, it analyzes the selected instructional practices that aim at enhancing the knowledge of Greek as a second language (L2). After reviewing the theoretical framework that reflects the linguistic ability of bilingual students, we present teaching approaches and teaching suggestions for the development of basic interpersonal skills. Finally, we address the concerns raised as well as the possibilities which open up in language teaching when individual cultural considerations are taken into account.
This module describes electronic media and suggests ways to use them in computer-assisted learning in the context of teaching Greek as a foreign/second language. This module is of purely practical nature. Given the fact that the available products of modern technology are so numerous that cannot be all included in a training program of this kind, we decided to focus on the most representative ones, based on (a) the accessibility of the relevant software to all participants and b) their didactic value. We begin by presenting certain electronic tools, such as electronic dictionaries and electronic text corpora. We then proceed to discuss learning communities (communities of practice and learning) and some modern communication tools, such as blogs, wikis, Skype and Edmodo. Finally, we extensively describe the capabilities of the program Hot Potatoes. The aim of this module is for the trainees to be sufficiently and effectively trained in the aforementioned tools in order to be able to integrate computer-assisted teaching methods and to create L2 teaching material, which they can adapt to the language needs of their students.
In the first chapter of the module we define assessment, we justify the feasibility of assessing the learner outcome in the context of learning a second/foreign language and we present the main features that a well-structured language test should have. In the second chapter we discuss the categories of different kinds of language tests (qualifying or diagnostic ones, etc.), as well as to their usability. In the third chapter we present the development of a well-structured language test and the most common assessment techniques, while in the fourth chapter we refer to the assessment of both receptive (listening and reading) and productive (speaking and writing) language skills. We also present the tools and, more specifically, the e-tools of the Centre for the Greek Language which can be used during the construction of each language testing. The module concludes with the fifth chapter which is concerned with alternative forms of assessment in the teaching of a second/foreign language and focuses on two of the most prevalent ones, namely, portfolios and the project.
...of Greek as a Foreign-Second Language
With a view to establishing the identity of the object of teaching literature, first we briefly examine the constitutive features of the literary language and literary texts in relation to non-fiction texts. We also do a throwback to the teaching of literature in national curricula (with special emphasis on the Modern Greek example) with a focus on the pedagogical traditions who served it. We also stress the strong links which were developed with linguistic treatment. Moreover, we present various types of reading and their exploitation in teaching, as well as the interdisciplinary characteristics of the field occupied by the teaching of literature. We refer to the objectives and the instructional practices of teaching Modern Greek literature in the context of the teaching of Greek as a second/foreign language (production and comprehension of spoken and written) with respect to attributes and methods of lifelong learning and differentiated instruction. Finally, we propose teaching examples (applications) for the teaching of Modern Greek literature from the original texts to students of Greek as a second/foreign language. The module is supplemented by a digital library of Modern Greek literary texts which are proposed for teaching use.
Translation constitutes within the context of foreign languages university departments, where the philology of a foreign language and culture is taught, an indispensable subject field, a special division within the department and a significant activity of the students. Respectively, studying at Translation Departments requires the proficient use of two foreign languages. In general, translation and foreign language teaching are directly connected, while translation is often considered to be the “fifth communicative skill”.
Within the framework of Modern Greek language Departments, the translational activity of both students and teachers is very important especially pertaining to the translation of Greek literature to the target-language.
The present module discusses the implementation of translation activities for the acquisition of Greek as an FL, while it equally examines the language teaching approaches which concern translation in the foreign language classroom.